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Southern Mongolia

A Road to Extinction

2007-08-08 IMPP

Statement of Inner Mongolia People`s Party on 60th Anniversary of the Establishment of “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”

Mongolia and China, as two separate nations, lost their independence to Manchuria in the end of 17th century and became subjects of same alien state. While the occupation by a foreign nation was already nothing strange to the Chinese by then as they had been frequently being invaded and occupied by foreigners ever since the 10th century, for the Mongols, it was the very first instance where a Mongol state came completely under control of a foreign power. In the beginning of 20th century, all of China and a large part of Mongolia resumed their respective independences. However, another large part of Mongolia, the Southern Mongolia, was directly shifted from the hands of Manchurians to that of the Chinese. From then onwards, Southern Mongolia`s fate depended on the Chinese.

The Sino-Japanese war and Chinese Civil war were happening simultaneously on the Chinese territory. Japan`s policy of splitting China and its strong military attacks helped to arouse the ever-lasting desire of the Southern Mongolians for their own freedom. Southern Mongolian who were separated into two parts under the Japanese occupation, were seeking paths to freedom in their own means. After Japan`s defeat in World War II, the Southern Mongolians strived for either to establish an independent Southern Mongolia or to join the already independent state of Mongolia. However, the new political map of a re-structured world by the major powers, in other words, the so called resolution of Yalta Conference, left the two-million strong Mongolians within the frontiers of China.

Southern Mongolians went through 60 years under the political system of so called “ethnic autonomy”. It is now clear that these 60 years of long process has been a process geared toward extinction.

Let us look back now at what happened during these 60 years!

The Chinese controlled all the power of party, government and military. If, in the beginning of the “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”, autonomy was being practice at least in the form by sending Sinicized and revolutionary Mongols to assume important positions of party, government and the military, as part of their plan, the Chinese started taking the power away before too long. Currently, all the party, government and the military powers in the levels of Region, League and Banner are occupied by the Chinese, and only few Mongol leaders can be seen in the lowest level of Sum where the Mongols are concentrated. In the recent years, the Chinese government is practicing the policy of taking away the power from Mongolians in the Sum level by replacing League (Aimag) with Municipality (shi) and Sum with Township (zhen). On the other hand, the Chinese are speeding up the process of assimilation by shifting the economic center from relatively Mongolian areas to purely Chinese ones.

Under foreign occupation, in Southern Mongolia, the number of Chinese migrants is now ten times more than that of the native Mongols. Chinese experts concluded that the natural resource of Southern Mongolia is good for only five million people to live on. However, there is currently a population of 30 million inhabiting there. When the Communist Chinese rule was established in 1947, majority of the population in most of Southern Mongolia`s leagues were Mongolian and many leagues were populated with only Mongols. To take Sunit Right Banner of Shiliin Gol Aimag as an example, there were only two Chinese in the whole league in 1947, while in 1984, of the total population of 70,000, Mongolian population became less than even one third. There existed some control over the migration of Chinese population into Southern Mongolia between 1950 and 1960 but still five million strong Chinese were transferred into the region. However, after this period no control imposed at all and Chinese migrants moved into the region as they pleased. With China`s reform of 1980s and the transition to market economy in the 1990s, with more Chinese investment coming into the region, Chinese migration into Mongolia became an issue that is not considered an “issue”. Thus the Chinese migrants moved into Southern Mongolian like locust, causing the current ratio between the Chinese and Mongolian population of 30 million against four million. From this ratio it is not hard to predict the future trend of population development of the region.

During the 60 years, the Chinese turned large part of Southern Mongolian grasslands into farming land, destroyed the Mongolian nomadic civilization and way of life, and turned the once beautiful grasslands of Mongolian Plateau into a dry desert frequented by sand storms. From Asia`s best grassland of Bargu, World-famous Shiliin-gol prairie to expansive Alashaa desert and the Sacred Land of Ordos were all cultivated by the Chinese and 56.3% of the total land area currently became desert (as this is the official figure announced by the Chinese government, understandably it should be lower than the real figure).

The Chinese, by default of their own cultural behaviors, kept destroying the forests and killing the wildlife. In this way, the mountains of Great Hyangan, Moni and Alasha became wasted; rivers of Luuh, Non and Ergune dried out; lakes of Hulun, Dalai and Boir shrunk. Mongolia`s great plain where once dears called, elks ran around and eagles hovered in air now left without any of those.

As the Chinese government turned Southern Monglia`s virgin natural land – which was famous for its beauty – into nuclear test sites, various strange diseases became rampant in Bayannuur and Alashaa and there often born children with diseases and disabilities.

The Chinese blamed on the native Mongols and their traditional way of life – which they lived in for thousands of years – for the natural degradation, and they started depriving the Mongols of their right to practice animal husbandry. They forced Mongol herder to the relocated under the name of “ecological migration.” That is only in order to speed up their plan of depriving the Mongols of their native land. Although, following the transition to market economy, they permitted the Mongols the right to use the land for 30 years, soon they started sending wealthy Chinese to purchase the land at a cheap price from the hands of the impoverished Mongols, speeding up the process of making the Mongol land “legally” and “forever” shift into the hands of the Chinese.

The Chinese recognized the important that Buddhism playing during the independence movement of the northern part of Mongolia and were afraid that same happen Southern Mongolia. Therefore, they ruthlessly treated the religion that united the Mongols spiritually and took actions to limit and destroy Mongolian Buddhism in Southern Mongolia. They destroyed more than two thousand monasteries and either massacred, imprisoned or sent to exile most of the monks.

The Chinese practiced a policy of genocide during these 60 years and took the precious lives of countless Mongolians. In a well-planned and measured manner, the Chinese massacred the Mongols from well-known patriots, prestigious intellectuals, wealthy families to literate herders. Between the winter of 1968 and the spring of 1969 alone, there were about 320,000 Mongols were either killed or tortured to receive injuries (official Chinese statistics). Since the 1911, one million Mongols have died in the hands of the Chinese without natural causes.

The Chinese carried out cultural invasion in Mongolia, completely replaced the Mongolian nomadic civilization with the Chinese agricultural civilization. In the initial stages, they changed the nomadic format to resettlements, and now “stable breeding”. In Horchin, which is inhabited by the half of the Southern Mongolian population, nomadic way of life now is nowhere to be seen and in other locales the process of cultivation is running in full force. In no part of Southern Mongolia today, all five types of livestock could be seen in full and in many places there are no livestock at all.

The Chinese are forcing the Mongols to learn the Chinese language and Kanji characters deliberately letting the Mongols to lose their native language and cultural heritage. In the 1960s, they started forcing the Mongolian kids to learn Chinese from the third grade of elementary school and from the 1990 onwards, they started from to first grade. The government made the Chinese language the only official language and they measured one`s qualification on the basis of their Chinese language proficiency. Thus they forced about a half of school age children to transfer to Chinese schools. During the last decade, they used the opportunity of combining Sums to reduce the number of high and elementary schools that taught in Mongolian and deprived numerous Mongol children of their right to compulsory education. The Mongolian language became a family language only, and Mongolian writing became just a shadow that comes after the Chinese characters. Today, the Southern Mongolians are left with no right to use their own language and writing, let alone rights to politics and economy!

In order to let the Mongolians lose their national conscience and wipe out the term Mongol from their hearts and minds, the Chinese banned the teaching of Mongolian history in high and elementary schools and forced children to study Chinese history and washed the brain of children with the Chinese chauvinistic ideal of “Zhonghua Nation”. They distorted the history of the Mongols, claiming Chinese Khan to be a Chinese emperor. They officially designated branches of Mongol Nation, namely Dagur, Tu, Bao`an and Dongxiang, as separate “ethnic groups”, with the purpose of splitting and destroying the Mongols as a whole nation.

The Chinese seriously violated human rights, imprisoned and convicted with serious and bogus crimes and even murdered those who fought for democracy, national freedom and independence. Leader of 1981 student movement, Huchintogus, was arrested twice; another leader of the movement, Wang Jianxi was arrested, tortured inhumanely and died in prison. They imposed made-up crimes upon patriotic Mongols, well-respected intellectuals and people with national conscience and put them into prison or placed under house arrest. Individuals such as Muunohai, Ulaanshuvuu and Sedendorj were either punished with long-term imprisonment with false crimes or placed under house arrest. Hada, who established Southern Mongolian Democratic Alliance and expressed his views in a peaceful way was arrested and is currently serving a 15-year sentence in Chinese prison.

The Chinese authorities enforced the policy of population control on ethnic minorities, though whose territories are 60% of the total land area of current day China, whose population is only 4% of China`s total population. While the Mongols are already a minority on their own land, still, the Chinese prohibited the Mongols from having more than two children. This is aimed to leave more land and natural resources for their own Chinese people.

Southern Mongolia has the world`s largest reserve of rare earth and its reserves of coal, iron, oil, natural gas and gold are largest in China. During the past 60 years, the Chinese government robbed the region off of these natural resources and transferred them to heartland of China as well as exported abroad. Starting from the 1990s, under the name of “opening up the West”, the Chinese accelerated their process of robbery and turned many areas of Southern Mongolia into mines.

If China is a prison, Southern Mongolia is a double prison. The ideological repression and oppression has always been more severe in Southern Mongolia than in the heartland of China; the Mongols do not the least freedom of expression and press. Mongolian authors and intellectuals who wrote to expose national oppression and injustice, express their dissatisfaction and disappointment and call for democracy were subjected to political pressure, discrimination and intimidation; their works were banned and themselves sent to prison.

Deceiving and cheating the kind-hearted and innocent Mongols with empty promises is a trick that the Chinese has long played. Sun Yat-sen, China`s father of the nation, supposedly a democrat as well as a patriot, prior to overthrowing the alien Manchu rule, announced that the non-Chinese nations have the right to seek their own freedoms. However, as soon as he established the Republic of China, he ate his own words and came up with the theory of so called “the republic of five-nations”, forcibly stopped Tibetans, Mongols, and others from seeking their respective independences. Communist Chinese, too, prior to their coming to power, were eagerly agreeing with the Mongols` right to independence (refer to 1935 statement, and resolutions and announcements thereafter). However, after 1949, they started rejecting to honor their promises and eventually, through passing the 1954 constitution, they completely denounced non-Chinese national autonomy.

Today, the Chinese are attempting to change ethnic autonomy in Southern Mongolia to regional autonomy in order to establish a theoretical foundation for owning Southern Mongolia`s territory forever.

It is true that during the past 60 years in Southern Mongolia, quality of life increased and educational and health conditions improved. Yet this is merely a trend of time and is only part of the global prosperity after the war. When compared to other parts of the world, development in Southern Mongolia has been very slow. Moreover, the construction and relative development took place in Southern Mongolia in fact has only been the process of forcing the Mongols to lose their national culture and to be Sinocized. Has there not been the colonial rule of China, we have reasons to believe that the lives of the Mongols would have been much better. Without the Chinese colonization, thousands of Mongols would not have been murdered; our rivers would not go dry; our lakes would not get shrink and our vast prairies would not become burnt earth. If the Chinese did not occupy our homeland, our settlements will not be empty of livestock; our children and youth will not forget their mother-tongue; our treasures will not go into others` hands without anything in return. Please recall the words of Mongolia`s great statesman, the 31st descendant of lineage of Chingis Khaan, Demchugdonrob: “If in Southern Mongolia we can take good care and advantage of, with the forests of Great Hyangan alone, we can live well for a hundred years.”

The Chinese only occupied all the important positions from top to bottom levels of government; centers of Region, Aimag, Hoshuu and Sum are all inhabited and dominated by the Chinese population. Mongolians who are forced out into deserts and distant mountains are not enjoying the result of modern science and technology. The Chinese are enjoying the cream of everything that is available in Southern Mongolia and are living luxury lives.

At the event of the 60-year anniversary of “Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region”, China`s central government is staging a huge drama of celebration in which they are spending large amount of funds to build roads, bridges and houses, repairing streets and increasing civil servants` salaries. They spent forty billion (40,000,000,000) yuan, equal to five billion US dollars, on the celebration alone! Yes, the Chinese have achieved within the last 60 years what their ancestors had wished for centuries but could not realize. It is understandable for the Chinese to hugely celebrate the results of their colonial opressions in Southern Mongolia. Through lavishly celebrating this anniversary, the Chinese are trying to tell the world that to be living under the shadow of so called “autonomy” is no different than being independent. No nation loves being colonized by others; colonization may bring prosperity but never will be able to replace independence.

China is a fire wrapped within paper. Although the Chinese economy is growing fast, the prosperity is wrapped within numerous complicated problems such as nationalities problem, religious problem, human rights problem, the issues around the gap between the rich and the poor, oppression and the desire for democracy. The country is now in a silence that comes only before the storms. When, for their own advantage, China becomes democracy, non-Chinese nationalities such as Mongols, Tibetans and Uyghurs who are distinctly different from the Chinese in terms of history, ethnicity, civilization, language, custom and religion will gain their freedom and be able to build their own respective independent nations.

During the 60 years of China`s colonial rule, Southern Mongolian people, Mongol culture and grasslands came close to the brink of extinction. Inner Mongolia People`s Party, whose goal is to fight for and bring independence for Southern Mongolia, demands the government of China for the following:

All level government power to be returned to the Mongols;
In Southern Mongolia, human rights must be respected; democracy must be established and patriots such as Hada must be release;
Barbaric acts such as forcing the Mongols to be displaced from their native land under the name of “ecological migration” must immediately be stopped;
Mongol schools which were unreasonably closed down must be restored, and the sacred rights to education that were taken away from our children must be returned.
Inner Mongolia People`s Party

Last Month of Summer, Year 801, Calendar of Chinggis Khagan

August the 8th, 2007, Western Calendar

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